When Zell Miller wanted a lottery in 1992, the then-Democratic governor traveled across Georgia to rally voter support.
Republican Governor Sonny Perdue campaigned for a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage 12 years later, and Republican Governor Nathan Deal and Atlanta Mayor Kasim Reed, a Democrat, urged Georgians this year to approve a tax hike to raise billions of dollars for transportation projects.
Miller and Perdue were victorious. The transportation tax got hammered in metro Atlanta and across much of the rest of Georgia. The common thread was the high-profile electioneering by leading elected officials.
It's happening again this year amid a fierce battle over a constitutional amendment that would affirm the state's authority to approve independent charter schools. But this time, lawsuits are involved.
Deal is among the amendment backers who argue it's a matter of offering more educational options. State Schools Superintendent John Barge, along with many local superintendents and school board members, lead the opposition. They say the amendment would strip power from local school boards that now can approve or reject applications for charters and could siphon money from existing schools.
Separate groups of citizens who back the amendment have sued in Fulton and Gwinnett counties, asking courts to block local school systems from any activity opposing the amendment. Georgia law generally restricts public officials and employees from using taxpayer money for blatant campaign activities, including on ballot measures. A 1981 Georgia Supreme Court ruling says spending "public money to influence the citizens and voters ... contains within it the possibility of the corrupt use of influence to perpetuate a local administration's power."
The question is how far that restriction extends: Do spending money on travel and spending time arguing a position amount to a de facto public expense? Must elected officials accept a muzzle when they take their oath of office?
Barge, Deal sound different voices
Although they are on opposite sides, Barge and Deal stand beside their actions.
"When issues of public education arise, I believe it's an expectation of those people who supported me (in the 2010 election) to keep them informed," Barge said. "I felt it was important for the people who put their confidence in me to know how I feel."
Deal spokesman Brian Robinson said, "The governor hasn't and won't use official resources to 'campaign' on behalf of an issue or candidate on the ballot. But the governor is duty-bound to tell Georgians where he stands on the most important issues facing the state."